Les historiens sont unanimes à dire que l’appelation de Pharaon n’a été utilisé que depuis le Nouvel Empire, soit bien après Abraham, Jacob et Joseph.
C’est une information qui n’apparait aucunement dans la Bible, ni dans l’AT ni dans le NT
Egyptian kings are commonly called pharaohs, following the usage of the Bible. The term pharaoh is derived from the Egyptian per ʿaa (“great estate”) and to the designation of the royal palace as an institution. This term was used increasingly from about 1400 BCE as a way of referring to the living king.
Example 3 – Joseph of the Quran and Bible The Quran has an entire chapter dedicated to the Prophet Joseph. The Bible mentions his story in Genesis. Biblical scholars and historians place Joseph’s entrance into Egypt in the period of the Middle Kingdom. Other documents attest to the invasions of the Hyksos, a Semitic people who usurped political control of Egypt during a period from 1700 to 1550 B.C. It is possible that the Hyksos were more favourable to people like Joseph and his family, and it is also possible that the reference to a pharaoh “who did not know Joseph” (Exod. 1:8) recalls a period when the Hyksos leadership in Egypt was rejected in favour of a new dynasty of native Egyptian kings (Coats, 1992:980). Interestingly, this was a time when the word ‘pharaoh’ was not used to refer to the rulers of Egypt. Thus, historians criticise the Biblical use of the word ‘pharaoh’ and see it as evidence of human interpolation, as can be seen in the excerpt below. The use of the title pharaoh in Genesis may be anachronistic in that Moses, in covering the events of the patriarchs in relation to Egypt, used the commonly accepted term “pharaoh” even though the title was not in use at the time of the patriarchs (cf. Gen 12:15-20)(Beitzel, 1988:1668-9) References Barth, K. (2004a) Church Dogmatics The Doctrine of the Word of God, Volume 1, Part 2: The Revelation of God; Holy Scripture: The Proclamation of the Church. London, Bloomsbury Publishing. Coats, G.W. (1992) Joseph. In: Freedman, D. N., Herion, G. A. (eds.) Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York, Doubleday, p. 980. Elwell, W. A., Beitzel, B. J., Buckwalter, H. D., Craigie, P. C., Douglas, J. D., Guelich, R., & Hearn, W. R. (1988). Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible (Vol. 2). Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House, pp. 1668-1669. Further Reading English – https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/ – https://www.manyprophetsonemessage.com/category/islam/ Arabic Barāhīn Al-Nubuwwah – Dr. Sami Amiri Min Al-Shakk ilā Al-Yaqīn – Dr. Fadil al-Samarra’i